The eviction resistances in London express the contestation of private re-appropriation of homes through powerful displays of collective strength. They are an emergent movement that demonstrates an ever co-dependant dance between law and protest. Private accumulation interjects in the business of making homes which ironically but unsurprisingly fails miserably because it actively seeks to remove people from where they live. But the huge property behemoths like ‘Lend Lease’ and ‘CapCo’ care not, because they want the ‘right people’ in their new builds, and to demolish and erase the lives already there. Sound familiar? Colonialism is colonising itself it seems. But these lives are vibrant, verdant, vital, and redolent, will not be wiped away and are time and time again coming back with their own version of collective law and resistance.
Focus E-15 has become somewhat of an institution now, but it began back in September 2013 with twenty-nine young mothers from a homeless hostel who, according to their blog, were served eviction notices from East Newham Housing Association. It was selling off the property as a result of local authority cuts to social housing subsidies. They were offered to be re-housed in Manchester, Birmingham – hundreds of miles away from where they had lived all their lives, not to mention their families, their heritage, and their sense of belonging. The young mothers started having a stall each Saturday in Stratford High Street, raising awareness of their plight and the eviction notices they were served. Their slogan ‘social housing not social cleansing’ becoming the by-word for a developing movement. The campaign caught the hearts and minds of many and since then there have been marches, celebrity endorsements, appearances of the collective this year at Glastonbury and Brighton Fringe. The campaign is an integral part of a wider mobilisation against expropriation across London. In a similar move to the Aylesbury occupation in Southwark, the young mothers highlighted the abandonment and laying to waste of empty social housing stock by occupying huge swathes of abandoned council housing ready to be demolished. Similar resistances to housing association and council sell-off prompted evictions are happening throughout London with extant actions against Annington Homes and Barnet Homes happening in Sweets Way Estate, as well as Camden Resists and Islington Park Street halting their evictions from One Housing Group properties.
The Aylesbury estate in Walworth, Southwark was similarly the coming together of direct housing action through protest and protecting people’s homes through the use of occupation. This huge action rang similar to protests and squatting going back to the sixties and seventies. On January 31st 2015, a 500 strong ‘March for Homes’ took place uniting activists and communities from across London. Part of the march broke away and formed a 150 person occupation of Chartridge House on the Aylesbury Estate as well as one of the main blocks being emptied for demolition and private housing development by Southwark Council. After two weeks of occupation on Monday February 16th, the authorities aquired a possession order to evict the occupiers. The occupiers remained until April whilst fencing (aptly named ‘Aylesbury Alcatraz’) and heavy security closed in the still remaining residents who were yet to be ‘decanted’, and who are still living in the enclosure of Aylesbury. It is set for demolition as a ‘First Development Site’ under the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) on the re-development of brownfield land.
Squatting and occupation is the response to expropriation, but what is the politico-juridical nature of the regime of expropriation that is prompting the new fervour of resistances? In an era where we see over a million people on the social housing waiting list and ‘affordable’ homes being built too slowly whilst the ubiquity of huge off-the-scale property developments buy up the last bastion of social housing remaining from Thatcher’s right to buy, accelerating across the capital like a spoilt, greedy child whilst its parents sit back in an indulgence of recklessness. Not only does this market-schizoid state watch on with a co-dependent infatuation enabling, encouraging and excusing the commodifying encroachments of its demonic relation, but it sanctifies its ideology in a joint enterprise of legal and extra-legal manoeuvres that unabashedly protect the propertied and annihilate the unpropertied. There appears an ambush of exploitative law and politics protecting the sovereignty of the hyper-elite, suffuse from all understanding that if they erase the poor, they erase themselves.
Directly prompting the eviction resistances we have seen in London are the cuts to public funding of social housing and big property’s manipulation of planning procedures undermined by right and left party policies that have allowed for local authority social housing quotas to be ignored through a system of legalised blackmail. This has resulted in housing association sell-offs of hostels, supported homes, shelters for the homeless and vulnerable—the impending and actual eviction of residents, to make way for grotesque new development schemes. Top of FormBottom of FormSection 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 allows for formalised and legitimated ‘planning gain’, whereby in accordance with the sociopathy of the Localism agenda, property developers seeking planning approval for projects from local councils can offer additional benefits to the community in the form of financial support in order to make their planning applications appear more attractive. Thus, given the economically malnourished state councils are in as a result of austerity measures, the bigger the private property project, the more money offset to them from the likes of Lend Lease and its controversial combined demolition and development strategy of the Heygate Estate in Elephant and Castle, amongst others. In the words of writer Oliver Wainwright: “The impact of a hundred new homes might be mitigated by money for extra school places, or traffic calming measures. In practice, since council budgets have been so viciously slashed, Section 106 has become a primary means of funding essential public services, from social housing to public parks, health centres to highways, schools to play areas.” As Wainwright reminds us, the market seduction of planning is not new, as is quite clearly the case of the clever rhetoric of the NPPF that proclaimed the presumption in favour of sustainable development, but with little or no concern for the ecological effects of construction, but a fixation once again on pleasing the ever obnoxious demands of commerce through encouraging brownfield development in examples such as Aylesbury.
Additionally, the ‘right to acquire’ legislation currently going through Parliament, which would allow housing association residents to buy their homes, will further reduce social housing stock. Yet according to blogger Amy Ling, it is questionable in terms of its legality as it forces housing associations to sell their property, and thus may undermine Article 1 Protocol 1 protections under the European Convention of Human Rights. She explains that the right to peaceful enjoyment of possessions is an unqualified right which following landmark Pye v UK (2008) 46 E.H.R.R. 45 concerning adverse possession and state limitations on the extent to which property rights can be qualified, such interference with individual’s rights must be deemed proportionate. Aside from possibly contravening charity covenants and duties, legislating compulsory sale of housing association property without rightful compensation from the state would support the argument the Tory party’s proposals compelling housing associations to sell off their stock to their occupants would be a disproportionate measure in the eyes of Pye. The ‘Right to Buy and Right to Acquire Schemes (Research) Bill 2014-15’ had its first reading in the House Of Commons on February 4th, 2015.
Helen Carr and David Cowan refer to the neoliberalisation of social housing as its ‘residualisation’. The violent effects of residualisation mean that not just homes disappear but so too do people. If it is not enough to remove all housing safety nets, implement wholesale cuts to housing legal aid and housing-related benefits, impose the notorious bedroom tax, and remove the security of tenure, then the bullying will continue through the criminalisation of a person with a Public Space Protection Order (PSPO) once they are finally on the street, helpless, distraught. Full spectrum abandonment.
The question is, where does a law of capital, the capital of law, suggest we go, once we have been sold off, evicted, dispossessed, forcibly removed, criminalised, traumatised? The encroachment of private property into previously charitable and subsidised spaces such as housing associations indicates that private property has run out of commons and what we thought were public spaces to exploit and now seeks to enclose the already enclosed. This is a new era of governance that cares not for the benevolence of charity, non-profit, or giving, even in a ‘proper’ form to the extent that housing associations, for instance, should assert an equal right to exclude as any other.
Equally, the closing in of private interests on the right to protest, and the preponderance of private and quasi-public spaces has now reached the point that people are indeed protesting in their own homes or the threatened homes of others. This qualifies the insatiable appetite of capital as it eats the remaining spaces in which we can exist, be, converse, sleep, kiss, and cry in to nothingness – whilst moronically cannibalising itself.
Pulling together the various perspectives on housing and its resistances, it is not easy to decipher a clear distinction between government acquisition and commercial acquisition. In Aylesbury and Heygate, state compulsory purchase can be confused with state-sanctioned commercial development acquisitions allowed through malleable planning procedures. This lack of distinction between state and commerce is of course what we understand as neoliberalism, but it feels as though that term is tired and no longer does justice to the violent biopolitics exemplified in this piece. After coming into contact with the inspiring work of ‘ecosopher’ Aetzel Griffioen as a result of an engagement with the squatting scene in the Netherlands through the recent art, law and resistance project of artist Adelita Husni-Bey, I can see Griffioen’s Guattarian-infused assertion from ‘The Three Ecologies’ (1989) that we are living in an age of ‘integrated world capitalism’ (IWC) as made so clear by the planning, policy and policing behaviours of the UK government. IWC is, as explained by Griffieon as he introduces his ‘speculative’ suggestions to counter IWC, is an integration of market and state where the government and market have become as one through the ‘pincer and scissor’ of IWC as it ‘valorizises’ human activity, ostensibly the reduction of the characteristically separate values of life and what it is to be human, into interchangeable economic value. Griffioen relates this to Naomi Klein’s understanding of ‘extractivism’ from her This Changes Everything: Capitalism v Climate (2014), being, “…the wider mentality of making profit without caring much for the consequences.”1Griffioen, Aetzel. ‘Short Remarks on an Ecosophical Pedagogy’, Le Merle. Vol. 3, no.1, Spring 2015, Montreal, 59-68.
I have found Griffioen’s combination of Guattari’s IWC with Klein’s extractivism as poignantly and painfully descriptive of the manifestation of capital and governance that we experience today, epitomised by the expropriations that have been mentioned here. I do not have the conceptual or philosophical formulation to describe our situation any better than Griffioen, Guattari and Klein but I do see a resonance with Griffioen’s assertion of the Guattarian claim that to counter IWC is “to revive forms of solidarity it is therefore necessary to work directly on the subjectivities of people inside and outside of the market-state.” And that this bifurcatory, paradigmatic shift in thinking and practice is produced in the performances of resistances that we are seeing in RadBank, Sweets Way Resists, Focus E-15 and so on. An emergent network of alternative organisation that exists on the actuality and potentiality of creating new commons out of commodified others; an explosive and revolutionary metabolism that demands our attention in the face of a grey and deceptive monotony, the all-out commercial acquisition of life and vitality itself.
Squatted social centres and eviction resistances demonstrate a resurgence of energy, vitalism, and activism – doing not just talking. The explosion of eviction resistances and a triumphant and exciting return of squatted social centres notably in London and Brighton in the past few weeks, demonstrates communities have been simultaneously marginalised and radicalised to take direct action by a specifically calculated market-infused state regime that shapes its policies through laws that remove, exclude, evict, extinguish homes and ways of life of those already existing on the edges of law and agency. Countless times you hear of the failure of representative politics in serving those that are invisibilised by law, as Andreas Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos would say – and the reality is, that this is true, and worse. Representative politics today is a mess. It is a whitewash of expropriating and exclusionary policies of capital dressed up as democracy, experienced as a dangerously boring and manipulative mediocrity, insisting on its monopoly of the political sphere whilst disappearing those arguments that contest its status quo.
The fact is, is that the resistances I have talked about need no agent or soapbox either from academics or from celebrities, they are creating their own literature, as they always have done – zines, alternative printing and publications, talking, conspiring, singing, crying, kicking, blocking, laughing; through blogging, social media, alternative practices – they are archiving every second, every minute of their struggle with solid legal, technical, philosophical and political prowess to which we all should take heed.
I dare you and I dare me, as academics, to find our own definition of impact just like the contemporary squats and occupations and artists are doing, in the spirit of the Prodigal jilted generation we began with where we can upturn Their Law with another, counter IWC’s enclosing of housing, and recreate the institution by instituting true activism in the coming together of uncommodified thought and practice in the fight against expropriation.