Niklas Luhmann: What is Autopoiesis?

Niklas Luhmann: What is Autopoiesis?

The term autopoiesis (self-creation) is a neologism coined in 1972 by Varela and Maturana, Chilean cellular biologists and systems theorists, to describe the capacity of living cells to reproduce and organise themselves. The term was picked up and deployed by Niklas...
Karl Marx: Alienation

Karl Marx: Alienation

The Marxian concept of alienation (Entäußerung)  or estrangement (Entfremdung) is one of the most discussed notions in the history of modern social and political theory. There is a long history of the term before Marx, from the giusnaturalistic and...
Roland Barthes: Myth

Roland Barthes: Myth

Myths of equality, from Bilal video clip, with permission from the owner. Human communication is multi-layered, as our language relies on complicated systems of signification; for example uttering a given statement using specific terminology might indicate the...
Frederic Jameson: Vanishing Mediator

Frederic Jameson: Vanishing Mediator

Frederic Jameson coined the term ‘vanishing mediator’ in an article from 1973 called “The Vanishing Mediator: Narrative Structure in Max Weber”. In that article, he used the vanishing mediator in his analysis of Max Weber and Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and the...
Achille Mbembe: Necropolitics

Achille Mbembe: Necropolitics

The economic and political management of human populations through their exposure to death has become a global phenomenon. Wars, genocides, refugee “crisis”, ecocide and contemporary processes of pauperization and precarization reveal how increasing masses of...